FCFF and FCFE are two types of Free Cash Flows; where FCFF belongs to an unlevered Free Cash Flow and FCFE to a levered Free Cash Flow, there also have many benefits and drawbacks of both the free cash flows that one should be aware of. Below we have mentioned detailed versions of each crucial subject, so without squandering a moment let’s move forward.

What is FCFF? 

FCFF stands for Free Cash Flow to Firm, a pie of cash left with the firm after paying off each cash expenditure; tax, investment, and liabilities. It is also referred to as unlevered Free Cash Flow. FCPP valuation holds importance as it estimates the company’s profits and its financial statements. Bondholders and stakeholders are the ones who get benefits from the remaining currency. To arrive at the exact FCFF figure, each and every inflow and outflow needed to analyze deeply which might result in reworking from ABCs of accountants’ work for Financial Analyst.

What is FCFE?

The amount of cash generated by a company that is available to be transferred to shareholders is known as a free cash flow to equity (FCFE). Free cash flow to equity serves as an estimate of net income, expenditures, working capital, and debt. The income statement of the firm shows net income. The cash flows from the investment portion of the cash flow statement contain capital expenditures. It is primarily attempted to determine the value of the company. As a valuation tool, it has gained traction as a viable alternative to the dividend discount model, particularly in circumstances where a company does not pay a dividend.

But when to use FCFE?

The free cash flow to equity method benefits the firm when its dividend policy isn’t policy, or when an investor controls a majority stake in the company. 

Difference between FCFF vs FCFE 

FCFF is an amount left for firms’ investors including bondholders and stockholdersFCFE plays as a contrary of it; as this amount is left over for the firm’s common equity investors only. 
As FCFF does not incorporate financial obligations when computing residual cash flow, it excludes the impact of leverage and is hence referred to as unlevered cash flow.FCFE is known as levered cash flow because it subtracts net financial obligations to account for the impact of leverage.
FCFF is used to calculate enterprise value, or the firm’s whole intrinsic value, in Discounted cash flow valuation.FCFE is used to determine equity value, or the intrinsic value of a firm available to common stock shareholders, in Discounted cash flow valuation.
To maintain consistency in considering all capital sources for enterprise valuation, FCFF is combined with a weighted average cost of capital while evaluating DCF valuation.Moreover, FCFE is used in conjunction with the cost of equity to ensure that only common equity shareholders’ claims are taken into account.

Comparison Between FCFF and FCFE

Free cash flow to the firm is provided to all investors of the firm Whereas Free cash flow to equity is provided just to a company’s common stock shareholders only.
The impact of leverage is excluded, As a result; known as unlevered cash flow.The impact of leverage is reflected in the cash flow, which is referred to as levered cash flow since it subtracts interest payments and principal repayments to loan holders to arrive at the cash flow.
It’s used to figure out the company’s valueOnly accessible for shareholder
Maintain consistency in equity cost Analysts prefer it as it delivers a more realistic picture of firm survival.
Preferred by Highly leveraged companies; it paints a more positive picture of the company’s long-term viability.Tem used when estimating the equity value of a company

What is the Valuation Formula? 

Business Valuation is a substantial aspect of the firm and strategies used in that should be crucial, business valuation experts are the ones who help to find inefficiencies and improve cash flow that adds worth to the company; business valuation is needed when a business needs to figure out the fair value of the business and build strong future strategics of taxation, ownership or establishment or much other economical reasons; as business valuation gives a firm a vital outline. The valuation model formula is a defined format to drive this whole procedure accurately. 

How to Calculate:

Before a direct jump on the method to calculate Free Cash Flow to Firm valuation and Free Cash To Equity valuation, let’s dig first what it stands for:

What is FCFF valuation? 

The present value of future FCFF is overlooked at the weighted average cost of capital that is used in the FCFF valuation approach to determine the firm’s worth:

FCFF valuation formula:

Net Operating Profit + Depreciation and Amortization expenseCapital ExpenditureChanges in Net Working Capital 

What is FCFE valuation?

The value of equity can be determined using the Free cash flow valuation model formula approach by discounting FCFE at the required rate of return on equity. 

FCFE Valuation formula:

FCFE = FCFF – Int(1 – Tax rate) + Net borrowing.

Advantages and Disadvantages Of FCFF and FCFE 

Pros Of FCFF

01. Useful to measure a firm’s remaining funds

02. Gives outline for further investments 

03. Helpful for immediate operations by short-term capitals

Cons Of FCFF

01. Can drive true values only if all financial statements are transparent

02. Difficult for forecasting companies’ long-time valuation cycle

03. Only works with projections from the investor.

Pros Of FCFE

01. Useful to measure equity capital usage

02. Gives outline for the availability of funds after all expenses, reinvestment, and debt

03. Helpful for profound operations by long-term capitals

Cons Of FCFE

01. The value will not be positive all the time

02. Can’t estimate current companies’ exact valuation 

03. Can only be applied to companies where leverage is not volatile 


Hence, Both FCFF and FCFE method is helpful but understanding the key differences and results that a startup or running firm will gain after applying was our primary point to explain and hope we drove it too, we are open to knowing the point of view or any recommendations by you; you may simply mention that in the comment box below.

If you are a startup in Bangalore or any spot of the globe, My Valuation – an IBBI registered valuators firm, is open to assist with accurate and dedicated valuation services.

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